Cybersecurity or information security strategic planningFIGURE 2.2Strategic Planning Enterprise strategic planning involves defining long-term goals and objectives for an organization (for example, business enterprise, government agency, or nonprofit organization) and the development of plans to achieve thes… The Standards and Technology Standards (STM) organization is responsible for administering the configuration and change-management processes. Conducting compliance certifications – by ensuring project deliverables and designs align with the vision and high level designs contained in the Business Architecture. Tax law inquiry with call back and service request. Third party online request for a taxpayer transcript. Submission Processing: provides the filing of both paper and electronic tax returns and the initial capture and accounting for tax revenues. Filing and payment compliance for an LMSB tax return. Crosswalk of NIST SP 800-53 and ETA Security Requirements. The inclusion of all systems components in the management solution is vital to ensure a consistent, cost-effective, and highly available operating environment. The Data Work Products define what data must be processed and stored by the IRS Enterprise, how it is structured and interrelated, and how it will be stored as listed in the following: The Performance Work Products define how well the IRS Enterprise must perform as listed: The Technology Work Products define the technical infrastructure needed to support the Functional, Data, and Performance Work Products. Filing and Payment Compliance: includes collecting delinquent tax obligations and securing delinquent tax returns. Sensitivity Classification of ECDM Data Classes: Identifies the sensitivity classification of each of the data classes of the Enterprise Conceptual Data Model (ECDM). It identifies emerging technology trends and their potential applicability to different IRS business functions, enabling different stakeholders to identify potential technology opportunities in support of business needs. The vision, themes, and enterprise technology direction in the TR is used by the IT investment planning team to evaluate the alignment of IT investment proposals with the broader enterprise business and technology decisions. The web-based Change Request management application is accessed by IT partners to modify the ESP. Enterprise strategic planning 2. The key standards component is the Enterprise Standards Profile (ESP) database. The IRS EA defines both an Enterprise Conceptual Data Model (ECDM) and an Enterprise Logical Data Model (ELDM). Impacts of budget cuts or changes to program priorities that result in cancelled or delayed projects can be quickly assessed using the plan. These critical services are addressed by the service domains, and include cross-cutting data, infrastructure and security services as well as common business functions that can be leveraged to support business domains. Ensuring that their business results are consistent with the mission and vision of the Agency. For example, a business is a taxpayer when it pays its income tax, and a business is an employer when that business withholds taxes from its employees and submits tax-related W-2 information to the IRS. It is useful for this discussion to define three hierarchically related aspects of strategic planning (see Figure 2.2): 1. In addition, EA manages performance, functional, and system management requirements and provides traceability of data and functional requirements to business processes. All identified roles contain role descriptions that define each role. The following processing threads are discussed in the corresponding section in EA: Balance-due tax return with subsequent installment agreement and default. The IRS EA Information Dictionary is located within the Glossary of IRS Business Terminology. Internal Management: manages IRS human capital and financial accounting. The Security Requirements model specifies security requirements for the IRS Enterprise Target Architecture (ETA). The Enterprise Transition Strategy (ETS) describes the overall IRS vision and strategy, and how existing and proposed investments align to it. The IRS Release Architecture (RA) is an IRS near-term IT plan encompassing all major and selected (strategic) non-Major IT projects planned for delivery within a sliding timeframe that includes the next three fiscal years. It also provides information on service definition. It provides high-level perspectives of the application architecture, the data architecture, and the conceptual technology architecture views. The security architecture view of the Target Architecture consists of other models besides the three named just above. The EA is composed of the following three major components and many sub-components within each major component: As-Built Architecture including all information technology applications. Nancy Seiger Much of the detailed architecture guidance around the technology architecture is provided in the IRS TRM manual. The Enterprise Standards Profile is primarily of interest to readers involved with design, development, and product selection. They provide the basis for defining architectural strategies and implementing complex IT options. The Target Architecture comprises the Business Architecture, the Systems Architecture, Application Architecture, Data Architecture, Security Architecture and the Technical Architecture. It describes the external entities with which the IRS interacts. The EA describes the future-state business processes that will support the IRS. The RA also documents dependencies between different projects and their releases. Enterprise architecture consists of the following three major components: hardware, software, and telecommunications … To demonstrate cross-business process integration. While functional roles are identified, organizational roles are not identified, because these change over time. Enterprise … Identify the capabilities necessary for achieving the future state. Security Risk Assessment: Estimates the relative degree of security risk associated with major target system components. 2.3.2 Components The concept of the components are defined as changeable goals, resources, processes and standards. Each release architecture specifies the state of the enterprise after the system deployments planned for a fiscal year. Inform IT Investment Prioritization and Decision Making: The ETB provides a framework for identifying and evaluating potential investments and ensuring their alignment with a common enterprise vision. The EA describes the Enterprise-level, future-state functional requirements that will support the modernized IRS. While the Business Process hierarchy has placeholders for content that may be added later; placeholders are not used in the current functional requirements. Segment architecture is fully reconciled with the agency enterprise architecture. These scenarios were developed in response to requests from the business community to meet two objectives: To demonstrate that the business processes outlined in the EA provide adequate coverage for the business functions under a variety of business conditions. The EA describes linkages between every Tax Administration Services, Support Delivery of Services and Internal Management of IRS Resources business process as defined in the End-to-End Business Process Views. The EA provides summaries of organization-level business concepts of operations (ConOps) that have been completed, processed, and approved for inclusion in the EA. Functions that are organized primarily by the business areas described in functional requirement. An official website of the United States Government. As these are Software Component… Further, the Technology Blueprint is regularly socialized through briefings, and these sessions provide a forum for stakeholders to provide feedback. Functions that are depicted in activity diagrams using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) notation. Other Models of the Target Architecture Privacy View: The privacy architecture view of the Target Architecture consists of other models besides the two named just above. EA describes programmatic requirements as those based on security and privacy; the IRS; and all agencies. Allocation of Security Mechanisms to System Components: Allocates the security mechanisms specified in the Security Requirements model to target logical business systems. Software Components are deployed to Application Deployments in the Physical View of the Application Layer in the Essential Meta Model. The Enterprise Architecture Requirements initiative include programmatic, security, and privacy requirements. The product lifecycle status dates provide guidance for technology insertion, product deployment, and version updates as well as identifying when products are no longer supported and must be removed. Application Development: delivers integrated software solutions that address the objectives and priorities of the IRS. reusable set of well-defined functionality that encapsulates its implementation and exporting it as a higher-level interface Ensure that projects take advantage of common infrastructure services in order to get maximum return on investment from a shared infrastructure environment, reduce redundant infrastructure, and enhance the use of common security, privacy, services management, and services delivery policies. In its framework for Federal Financial Management Systems, the JFMIP states that “Effective financial management depends upon appropriate control of business transactions, in accordance with internal control standards, and recording business event information in a manner that satisfies multiple users and uses. Security Requirements: Specifies security requirements–particularly, technical (that is, information technology [IT]) security requirements–for the Target Architecture, Traceability of Privacy and Technical Security Requirements to Business Process Security and Privacy Considerations: Traces the security requirements of the previous model to what are called the security considerations of target business processes, Crosswalk of NIST SP 800-53 and ETA Security Requirements: A crosswalk of the Target Architecture technical security requirements and the controls specified in NIST SP 800-53, Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems, Revision 1, Other Models of the Target Architecture Security View. However, regardless of the breadth of management products that are selected for deployment at the IRS, all must conform to a common set of operational policies and procedures, and all must be very closely integrated. A relational database hosting Appian internal data and metadata, plus any additional relational databases hosting Appian business data. Consolidating or standardizing similar processes and services – as appropriate. It summarizes the current state of the current production environment, documents challenges and goals for the IRS by business, technical or service domain, includes the defined portfolio of programs and projects for achieving the transition. The Project Chartering process includes guidance for completing the alignment portion of the Charter, a sample of a completed EA Alignment table, a collection of charter documents, and a link to the Enterprise Life Cycle Process Management Office (ELCPMO) project charter data item description document. The TR content fosters a common understanding of the IRS’s future technical direction among the project stakeholders and aligns the specific business needs to the enterprise programs, IT initiatives, and technology strategies. Data resources and technologies, including metadata and XML. Figure 1-8: Examples of EA Components. The ESP focuses on the functionality of standards and approved products. Taken as a whole, these Work Products define the measures necessary to protect sensitive IRS assets, including taxpayer information. This section also contains summaries of organization-level concepts of operations (ConOps) that have been completed, processed, and approved for inclusion in the EA. The first one is ﬁSystem Portalﬂ, which is an interface between users and the system objects. Program Goals: The objectives of the EA include: Managing change within the IRS as it modernizes, Providing source of document of where business is going and how we will conduct business in the future, Identifying business processes and their interactions, Providing a foundation for defining the scopes of modernization projects, Establishing requirements, design and transition for project development, Developing guiding principles, constraints, and assumptions for project development, Identifying security and privacy needs for project development, Establishing system standards and conventions, and define how tools will be used by projects, Developing sequence plan for transforming Current Production Environment(CPE) into future environment. Process flow diagrams that illustrate functions within major processes (shows interrelationships between subprocesses). Other models of the security view include: Security Considerations of Target Business Processes: Specifies very high-level security requirements for target business processes. A data server to store application data … (Sensitivity classification indicates whether a data class is sensitive or non-sensitive and, if sensitive, its sensitivity type [for example, Taxpayer, Employee Personal, Law Enforcement].) Role Definitions identify, classify and explain the roles that support the core business of the IRS. The IRS Business Architecture defines the business aspects of the target state of the IRS Enterprise. Enterprise Target Architecture and its sub-components including EA Strategy and Function, EA Roadmap, EA Principles, EA Requirements, Business Architecture, Organization and Location, Data Architecture, Application and Technology which covers System Architecture, System Interfaces, Technical Architecture, Application Architecture, Security Architecture, System Management Architecture, Technical Guidance and Design Patterns, Service Repository and Service Oriented Architecture, and Enterprise Standards Profile. The Systems Architecture is presented in two logical sections: The System Requirements items detail the needs identified during a comprehensive systems analysis. The need for systems management is not limited to any specific platform, system, or application types, but rather, extends to all platforms, systems, and applications that are deployed at the IRS. They provide the basis for the realization of the IRS’ future vision by helping business owners and program developers ensure that proposed systems and other initiatives are approved, resourced, and integrated into the IRS enterprise. The Target Architecture is available through a Web-based two-layer framework providing access to the major components of the Enterprise Architecture: The Target EA Framework provides pre-established views or perspectives across multiple EA functions as the means to access small content segments based on specific EA topics. Provides a high level overview of architecture and components, including Bot Creator, Bot Runner and Enterprise Control Room. Business investments and resources are also fully aligned with the approved segment architecture. IRS Organization Descriptions, which are part of the IRS EA Organization Model View, identify and describe the organizational entities that comprise the IRS. The target architecture supports the fulfillment of the IRS mission and strategic goals by establishing a three to five-year outlook that drives information technology investment decisions based on priorities around modernizing front-line tax administration and supporting technical infrastructure. Enterprise Architecture (EA) provides insight into organizations’ business and IT components and how these are interconnected. The EA provides a security risk assessment model that supports the Enterprise target systems security architecture. Recognizing the dependencies and establishing key attributes of projects early in the life cycle, while the cost of changes or fixing problems is relatively small. Authors call it enterprise … It is understood that no single tool will likely be capable of performing all ESM functions for all platforms and components. The three top-level areas are: Transaction Data. Information technology (IT) strategic planning 3. Enterprise Services: sets critical enterprise standards to promote compatibility and common practices across the IRS, applies engineering expertise directly to projects and programs, establishes frameworks for IT demand management and prioritization, and establishes governance and control methodologies for the IT portfolio. Manage Taxpayer Accounts: provides the data, systems, and processes used to manage taxpayer accounts. Like other business enterprises, the IRS offers an array of services, similar to a menu or catalog of services that identifies the various products and services that one can obtain from that business enterprise. The components … ArchiMate consists of three components– a language core, which was defined in the version 1.0 of the standard, and some language extensions that appeared later, namely the motivation extension that made possible the specification of motivation models and linked them to enterprise architecture… Each is described in more detail in the following subsection but both pertain to organizing the data needed for the administration of the business of the IRS. It can be a tax service or a service that provides a tax product. Enterprise architecture management (EAM) is a structured approach that an enterprise uses for creating, managing, and using enterprise architecture to align business and IT. This enables high-level impact assessment of investment decisions. Standards and Technology Management (STM) is responsible for all COTs-based information technology insertions within the IRS. The Business Process Model includes: Process hierarchies in the form of decomposition diagrams that show structure. The IRS Enterprise Technology Blueprint (ETB) articulates the envisioned long-range technology environment and describes how technology will be leveraged and deployed in support of the strategic IRS business direction. Use of enterprise architectures in managing strategic change; Recently Added Books. The higher level external entities are listed below: EE-1.2 – Organizational Taxpayers (not shown on context diagram), EE-2.0 – Third Parties (not shown on context diagram), EE-2.4 – Other Third Parties (not shown on context diagram), EE-2.4.1 – Other Taxpayer/IRS Intermediaries. Prioritizing various projects and related investments. Enterprise Continuum Architecture Partitioning Architecture Repository Tools for Architecture Development Foundation Architecture: Technical Reference Model Integrated Information … It provides IRS business and IT stakeholders a common long-range view of IRS operations from a business and IT perspective and depicts the alignment between business and IT concepts. Determining the impact of proposed changes in business to business services, business processes, roles, organizations and supporting systems and infrastructure. While the business architecture covers concepts related to business process, organization, and location, the technical architecture covers concepts and strategies related to data, applications, and technology. Current) in the IRS and when the products are Sunset through the product lifecycle management process. The IRS EA presents a high-level view of how the Business Architecture can be used to support key roles in the planning, development, and managing the evolution of the IRS to meet its strategic goals and objectives. Outline the key areas of change between the current and future states. Traceability of Privacy and Technical Security Requirements to Business Process Security & Privacy Considerations. A business … A logical data model is a complete account of the data required by an organization or business area. The ESP presents status about standards and approved products. The purposes of this IRM are to: Define the EA and depict the key components of EA, Define how the EA fits within the concept of operations for the business. Builders/Architects - EA Program, IRS developers, and contractor developers. It comprises the following seven topics: Traceability of data and functional requirements to business processes. The following list includes all the Security, Section 508, and Privacy Work Products: Federal Laws and Regulations Applicable to Security, Section 508, and Privacy, Security Considerations of Target Architecture Business Processes, Section 508 Considerations of Target Architecture Business Processes, Security Categories of ETA Business Processes, Sensitivity Classification of ECDM Data Classes, Traceability of Privacy and Technical Security Requirements to Business Process Security and Privacy Considerations, Crosswalk of NIST SP 800-53 and ETA Security Requirements, Allocation of Security Mechanisms to Systems Components. These segments, or business domains, reflect a purely functional rather than organizational view of the business, and ensure that business priorities remain the focus of IRS IT investments. Strategy and Planning: provides business planning and risk management, financial management, investment and portfolio controland oversight, and strategic supplier management. Segment architecture is developed to support a clear and concise value proposition linked to the agency mission, as well as to its strategic goals and objectives. A security processing thread presented in Security Processing Thread emphasizes the involvement of infrastructure components as an employee logs on to an IRS workstation and begins working on a filing and payment compliance case. To achieve this objective, segment architecture is used to identify the enterprise segments and to link enterprise-level planning with the development and implementation of solution architecture. Unless excepted, these standards apply to all Information systems and products including Development, Procurement, Maintenance, and Official Communication. The RA allows the user to identify the impact of each planned project release on the current IT production environment (CPE) in terms of newly built business applications, data stores, data interfaces, and infrastructure systems as well as project releases that will modify or permit the retirement of existing systems. One or more search servers. IRS business processes are associated with the specific IRS Location Types at which they are performed in Process / Location Type. The ELC Domains of Change view of the EA is really a summarization of all the technical components of the EA as they guide the development of systems. Security Considerations of Target Architecture Business Processes. Exempt organization (IRC Section 6104) public disclosure of 527, Taxpayer receives individual assistance with unpaid balance for previous year’s taxes. ERP … There are two such models: Allocation of Security Mechanisms to System Components: allocates the security mechanisms specified in the Security Requirements model to system components identified in the IRS Logical Business Systems / Allocation of Functional and Data Requirements to Systems model. Enterprise Architecture Components: Name: Description: Business Events: A Business Event is an intersection between a business information system and a business function. Outline potential areas of process change. Finally, Technical Domains were recently introduced into the MV&S Framework. This section includes the scope, purpose, and objectives of Enterprise Architecture. 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